I haven’t said Hi for a while when starting a post. I think the rush and the whirlwind of things happening during the GSoC made me a little agitated. This year, my project was the only one accepted for X.Org Foundation, and I felt a great responsibility. Well, this is the last week of the project, and I’m slowing down and breathing :)

This report is a summary of my journey at Google Summer of Code 2020. Experience and technical reports can be read in more detail in the 11 blog posts I published during this period:

Date Post
2020/05/13 I’m in - GSoC 2020 - X.Org Foundation
2020/05/20 Everyone makes a script
2020/06/02 Status update - Tie up loose ends before starting
2020/06/03 Walking in the KMS CURSOR CRC test
2020/06/15 Status update - connected errors
2020/07/06 GSoC First Phase - Achievements
2020/07/17 Increasing test coverage in VKMS - max square cursor size
2020/08/12 The end of an endless debugging of an endless wait
2020/08/19 If a warning remains, the job is not finished.
2020/08/27 Another day, another mistery
2020/08/28 Better validation of alpha-blending

So, the Google Summer of Code was an amazing experience! I have evolved not only technically, but also as a developer in a software community. In this period, I could work on different projects and even interact with their community. I contributed to three projects with various purposes, sizes, and maturities, and I describe below a little of my relationship with each of them:

DRM/Linux Kernel

The Linux kernel is one of the largest, most famous, and most mature free and open-source project. It is also the kernel that I have been using for over ten years. The development of Linux is so interesting to me that I chose it as a case study of my Master’s in Computer Science research.

Among the various subsystems in the project, I have contributed to DRM, the part of Linux responsible for the interface with GPUs. It provides the user-space with API to send commands and data in a format suitable for modern GPUs. It is the kernel-space component of graphic stacks like the X.Org Server.

And was X.Org Foundation, the organization that supported my project in GSoC. Thanks to the support from the DRI community and the X.Org Foundation, I have contributed over the past few months to improve the VKMS. The Virtual Kernel Mode Setting is a software-only model of a KMS driver that allows you to test DRM and run X on systems without a hardware display capability.


IGT is a set of tools used to develop and validate DRM drivers. These tools can be used by drivers other than Intel drivers and I widely used it to evolve the VKMS. Using IGT to improve VKMS can be very useful for validating patches sent to the core of DRM, that is, performing automated tests against new code changes with no need of real hardware.

With this concern, all my work on GSoC aimed to bring greater stability in IGT tests’ execution using VKMS. IGT test cases guided most of my contributions to the VKMS. Before sending any code, I took care of validating if, with my change, the tests that I have any familiarity remained stable and properly working.


Kworflow is a set of scripts that I use in my development environment for the Linux kernel. It greatly facilitates the execution of routine tasks of coding, examining the code, and sending patches.

My mentor developed it, Rodrigo Siqueira and other students and former students of computer science at the university contributed to add functionality and evolve the project. It supports your local kernel version’s compilation and deployment, helps you browse the code and the change history, and provides essential information for patch formatting.

With these three projects, I had an exciting development journey and many lessons learned to share. Here is a summary of that experience:

From start to finish

The general purpose of my GSoC project was to evolve VKMS using IGT tests. In this way, I used the kms_cursor_crc test case as a starting point to fix and validate features, adjust behaviors, and increase test coverage in VKMS.

[KMS cursor crc uses]
the display CRC support to validate cursor plane functionality.
The test will position the cursor plane either fully onscreen,
partially onscreen, or fully offscreen, using either a fully opaque
or fully transparent surface. In each case, it enables the cursor plane
and then reads the PF CRC (hardware test) and compares it with the CRC
value obtained when the cursor plane was disabled and its drawing is
directly inserted on the PF by software.

In my project proposal, I presented the piglit statistics for kms_cursor_crc using VKMS. It was seven test cases successful, two fails, one warning (under development), and 236 skips. Now, I can present an overview of this state and the improvements mapped and applied during this GSoC period:

Failing tests

Initially, three test cases failed using VKMS. Before GSoC start, I had already sent a proposal that moved it from failure to success with a warning and was related to the composition of planes considering the alpha channel. The second was a case that had already worked two years ago. The latter had never worked before. This last two were related to the behavior of the cursor plane in power management tasks.

From failure to warning

Since VKMS did not consider the alpha channel for blending, it zeroed that channel before computing the crc. However, the operation that would do this was zeroing the wrong channel, due to an endianness trap. It led the test case to failure. Even after fixing this operation, the test still emitted a warning. This happened because, when zeroing the alpha channel, VKMS was delivering a fully transparent black primary plane for capturing CRC, while the background should be a solid black.

A cross-cutting problem that affected the performance of VKMS for sequential subtests execution

During the sequential execution of the kms_cursor_crc test cases, the results were unstable. Successful tests failed, two runs of the same test alternated between failure and success … in short, a mess.

In debugging and examining the change history, I found a commit that changes the VKMS performance of the kms_cursor_crc test cases. This change replaced the drm_wait_for_vblanks function with drm_wait_flip_done and, therefore, the VKMS stopped “forcing” vblank interrupts during the process of state commit. Without vblank interruptions, the execution of testcases in sequence got stuck. Forcing vblanks was just a stopgap and not a real solution. Besides, the IGT test itself was also leaving a kind of trash when failure happened, since it did not complete the cleanup and affected the next subtest.

Skips due to unmet of test requirements

Skips were caused by the lack of the following features in VKMS:

  • Cursor sizes larger than 64x64 and non-square cursor (few drivers take this approach)
  • Support for more than one CRTC (still not developed):

  Test requirement not met in function igt_require_pipe, file ../lib/igt_kms.c:1900:
  Test requirement: !(!display->pipes[pipe].enabled)
  Pipe F does not exist or not enabled

So, for each of these issues, I needed to identify the problem, find out what project the problem was coming from, map what was required to resolve, and then code the contribution. With that, I had to combine work from two fronts: DRM and IGT. Also, with the more intensive use of my development environment, I needed to develop some improvements in the tool that supports me in compiling, installing, and exploring the kernel using a virtual machine. As a consequence, I also sent some contributions to the Kworkflow project.

Patches sent during GSoC 2020 to solve the above issues

## Project Patch Status Blog post
01 DRM/Linux kernel drm/vkms: change the max cursor width/height Accepted Link
02 DRM/Linux kernel drm/vkms: add missing drm_crtc_vblank_put to the get/put pair on flush Discarded -
03 DRM/Linux kernel drm/vkms: fix xrgb on compute crc Accepted -
04 DRM/Linux kernel drm/vkms: guarantee vblank when capturing crc (v3) Accepted Link
05 DRM/Linux kernel drm/vkms: add alpha-premultiplied color blending (v2) Accepted Link
06 IGT GPU Tools lib/igt_fb: remove extra parameters from igt_put_cairo_ctx Accepted Link
07 IGT GPU Tools [i-g-t,v2,1/2] lib/igt_fb: change comments with fd description Accepted Link
08 IGT GPU Tools [i-g-t,v2,2/2] test/kms_cursor_crc: update subtests descriptions and some comments Accepted Link
09 IGT GPU Tools [i-g-t,v2,1/1] test/kms_cursor_crc: release old pipe_crc before create a new one Accepted Link
10 IGT GPU Tools [i-g-t,2/2] test/kms_cursor_crc: align the start of the CRC capture to a vblank Discarded Link
11 IGT GPU Tools [i-g-t] tests/kms_cursor_crc: refactoring cursor-alpha subtests Under review Link
12 Kworkflow src: add grep utility to explore feature Merged Link
13 Kworkflow kw: small issue on u/mount alert message Merged Link
14 Kworkflow Add support for deployment in a debian-VM Under review Link

With the patches sent, I collaborated to:

  • Increasing test coverage in VKMS
  • Bug fixes in VKMS
  • Adjusting part of the VKMS design to its peculiarities as a fake driver allowing to stabilize its work performance
  • Fixing a leak in kms_cursor_crc cleanup when a testcase fails
  • Improving different parts of the IGT tool documentation
  • Increasing the effectiveness of testing cursor plane alpha-composition
  • Improve my development environment and increase my productivity.

Not only coding, getting involved in the community

In addition to sending code improvements, my initial proposal included adding support for real overlay planes. However, I participated in other community activities that led me to adapt a portion of my project to meet emerging and more urgent demands.

I took a long time debugging the VKMS’s unstable behavior together with other DRM community members. Initially, I was working in isolation on the solution. However, I realized that that problem had a history and that it would be more productive to talk to other developers to find a suitable solution. When I saw on the mailing list, another developer had encountered a similar problem, and I joined the conversation. This experience was very enriching, where I had the support and guidance of DRM’s maintainer, Daniel Vetter. Debugging together with Daniel and Sidong Yang, we got a better solution to the problem. Finally, it seems that somehow, this debate contributed to another developer, Leandro Ribeiro, in his work on another VKMS’s issue.

In this debugging process, I also gained more experience and confidence concerning the project. So, I reviewed and tested some patches sent to VKMS [1,2,3,4]. Finally, with the knowledge acquired, I was also able to contribute to the debugging of a feature under development that adds support for writeback [5].

Discussion and future works

The table below summarizes my progress in stabilizing the execution of kms_cursor_crc using VKMS.

Status Start End
pass 7 25 (+18)
warn 1 0 (-1)
fail 2 0 (-2)
skip 236 221 (-15)
total 246 246

To solve the warning triggered by the test case pipe-A-cursor-alpha-transparent, I needed to develop an already mapped feature: TODO: Use the alpha value to blend vaddr\_src with vaddr\_dst instead of overwriting it in blend(). This feature showed that another test case, the pipe-A-cursor-alpha-opaque, had a false-pass. Moreover, both test cases related to the composition of the cursor plane with the primary plane were not sufficient to verify the composition’s correctness. As a result, I sent IGT a refactoring of the test cases to improve coverage.

The handling of the two failures initially reported were built by the same debugging process. However, they had different stories. The dpms test case had already been successful in the past, according to a commit in the git log. It started to fail after a change, which was correct but evidenced the driver’s deficiency. There was no report for the suspend test case that it worked correctly at some point, but it lacked the same: ensuring that vblank interruptions are occurring for the composition work and CRC captures.

The remaining skips are related to:

  1. non-square cursor support. Which, as far as I know, is a very specific feature for Intel drivers. If this restricted application is confirmed, the right thing to do is moving these test cases to the specific i915 driver test folder.
  2. the test requirement for more than one pipe: “Pipe (B-F) does not exist or not enabled”. This need a more complex work to add support for more than one CRTC.

I also started examining how to support the real overlay:

  • create a parameter to enable the overlay;
  • enable the third type of plane overlay in addition to the existing primary and cursor;
  • and allow the blending of the three planes.

Lessons learned

  1. In one of my first contributions to the VKMS I received feedback, let’s say, scary. To this day, I have no idea who that person was, and maybe he didn’t want to scare me, but his lack of politeness to say ‘That looks horrid’ was pretty disheartening for a beginner. Lucky for me that I didn’t take it so seriously, I continued my journey, started GSoC, and realized that the most active developers in the community are very friendly and inclusive. I learned a lot, and I would like to thank them for sharing their knowledge and information.
  2. Still related to the previous topic, I feel that the less serious developers also don’t care much about contribution etiquette and code of conduct. By unknowing or overlooking the rules of the community, they end up creating discomfort for other developers. In the DRM community, I noticed care in maintaining the community and bringing in new contributors. I did not feel unworthy or discredited in any discussion with the others. On the contrary, I felt very encouraged to continue, to learn, and to contribute.
  3. In addition to the diversity of skills, maturity, and culture of the developers, the Linux community deals with timezone differences. It’s crazy to see the energy of the DRI community on IRC channel, even with people sleeping and waking up at random times.
  4. I still don’t feel very comfortable talking on the IRC channel, for two reasons: I always take time to understand the subject being discussed technically, and my English is not very good. The dialogues I had by e-mail were very useful. It gave me time to think and check the validity of my ideas before speaking. It was still a record/documentation for future contributions.
  5. The Linux kernel is very well documented. For most questions, there is an answer somewhere in the documentation. However, it is not always immediate to find the answer because it is an extensible project. Besides, a lot has already been encapsulated and encoded for reuse, so creating something from scratch can often be unnecessary.

And after GSoC

Well, my first, short-term plan is to make a good presentation at XDC 2020. In it, I will highlight interesting cases on my project of working on IGT and VKMS together. My presentation will be on the first day, September 16; more details:

VKMS improvements using IGT GPU Tools

My second plan is to continue contributing to the VKMS, initially adding the mapped features of adding a real overlay and structuring the VKMS for more than one CRTC. Probably, with the entry of writeback support, doing these things requires even more reasoning.

Not least, I want to finish my master’s degree and complete my research on Linux development, adding my practical experiences with VKMS development. I’m almost there, hopefully later this year. And then, I hope to find a job that will allow me to work on Linux development. And live. :P


Finally, I thank X.Org Foundation for accepting my project and believing in my performance (since I was the organization’s sole project in this year’s GSoC). Also, Trevor Woerner for motivation, communication and confidence! He was always very attentive, guiding me and giving tips and advice.

Thank my mentor, Rodrigo Siqueira, who believed in my potential, openly shared knowledge that he acquired with great effort, and gave relevance to each question that I presented, and encouraged me to talk with the community. Many thanks also to the DRI community and Daniel Vetter for sharing their time and so much information and knowledge with me and being friendly and giving me constructive feedback.

  1. https://patchwork.freedesktop.org/patch/374926/
  2. https://patchwork.freedesktop.org/patch/377557/
  3. https://patchwork.freedesktop.org/patch/381344/
  4. https://patchwork.freedesktop.org/patch/387714/
  5. https://patchwork.freedesktop.org/series/80961/